Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Stock-Based Compensation

v3.10.0.1
Stock-Based Compensation
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2018
Disclosure of Compensation Related Costs, Share-based Payments [Abstract]  
Stock-Based Compensation
Stock-Based Compensation

We have two equity incentive plans: the 2008 Stock Option Plan (the “2008 Plan”) and the 2011 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2011 Plan”, and together with the 2008 Plan, the “Stock Option Plans”). The Stock Option Plans are meant to provide additional incentive to officers, employees and consultants to remain in our employment. Options granted are generally exercisable for up to 10 years.

At September 30, 2018, 186,843 shares remain available for future awards under the 2011 Plan. Effective April 9, 2018, the Company is no longer able to issue options from the 2008 Plan.

A summary of employee and non-employee stock option activity for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 is as follows:
 
Options Outstanding
 
Weighted-
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Term (in years)
 
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
(in thousands)
 
Number of
Shares
(in thousands)
 
Weighted-
Average
Exercise
Price
 
Outstanding January 1, 2018
2,844

 
$
7.00

 
6.96
 
$
4

Granted
757

 
0.91

 
 
 
 
Cancelled or expired
(560
)
 
5.14

 
 
 
 
Outstanding September 30, 2018
3,041

 
$
5.83

 
5.97
 
$
92

Exercisable September 30, 2018
1,838

 
$
8.50

 
3.91
 
$



Aggregate intrinsic value represents the difference between the fair value of our common stock and the exercise price of outstanding, in-the-money options.

As of September 30, 2018, total unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested stock options granted to employees was $1,227,971 which we expect to recognize over the next 3.01 years.

The fair value of options granted to employees is estimated on the grant date using the Black-Scholes option valuation model. This valuation model requires us to make assumptions and judgments about the variables used in the calculation, including the expected term (the period of time that the options granted are expected to be outstanding), the volatility of our common stock, a risk-free interest rate, and expected dividends. Forfeitures will be recorded when they occur. No compensation cost is recorded for options that do not vest. We use the simplified calculation of expected life described in the SEC’s Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107, Share-Based Payment, and volatility is based on the historical volatility of our common stock. The risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant for periods corresponding with the expected life of the option. We use an expected dividend yield of zero, as we do not anticipate paying any dividends in the foreseeable future.

The following table presents the weighted-average assumptions used to estimate the fair value of options granted to employees during the periods presented:
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Volatility
76.89
%
 
75.28
%
 
77.69
%
 
74.60
%
Risk free interest rate
2.76
%
 
1.92
%
 
2.88
%
 
1.97
%
Dividend yield
0.00
%
 
0.00
%
 
0.00
%
 
0.00
%
Term (years)
6.32

 
5.73

 
6.47

 
5.90

Weighted-average fair value of options granted during the period
$
0.72

 
$
1.91

 
$
0.64

 
$
1.89



In May 2014, we issued 200,000 options to a Director with an exercise price of $15.89. See Note 12 for additional information. The following table presents the weighted-average assumptions used to estimate the fair value of options reaching their measurement date for non-employees during the periods presented:
 
Three Months Ended September 30, 2017
 
Nine Months Ended September 30, 2017
Volatility
74.39
%
 
76.06
%
Risk free interest rate
2.17
%
 
2.19
%
Dividend yield
0.00
%
 
0.00
%
Term (years)
6.64

 
6.89



Restricted stock awards have been granted to employees, directors and consultants as compensation for services. At September 30, 2018, there was $87,803 of unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested restricted stock granted to employees and directors; we expect to recognize the cost over 0.92 years.

The following table summarizes the activities for our non-vested restricted stock awards for the nine months ended September 30, 2018:
 
Non-vested Restricted Stock Awards
 
Number of
Shares
(in thousands)
 
Weighted-Average Grant Date Fair Value
Non-vested at January 1, 2018
91

 
$
4.21

Vested
(21
)
 
4.10

Cancelled
(23
)
 
6.66

Non-vested at September 30, 2018
47

 
$
3.08



The following table presents the effects of stock-based compensation related to stock option and restricted stock awards to employees and non-employees on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Other Comprehensive Loss during the periods presented (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Cost of revenues
$
52

 
$
122

 
$
233

 
$
250

Research and development
13

 
11

 
44

 
110

General and administrative
101

 
356

 
399

 
949

Sales and marketing
23

 
30

 
55

 
86

Total stock-based compensation
$
189

 
$
519

 
$
731

 
$
1,395